Ramamoorthy C. Anderson GD. Williams GD. Lynn AM. Pharmacokinetics and side effects of milrinone in infants and children after open heart surgery. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 1998;6(2):283-9.
The authors investigated the pharmacokinetics and side effects of milrinone in infants and children (< or = 13 yr) after open heart surgery in this prospective, open-label study. Milrinone binding to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuitry was also examined in out two groups. Children in the small dose group (n = 11) received two 25-mcg/kg boluses with a final infusion rate of 0.5 mcg kg(-1) x min(-1); those in the large dose group (n = 8) received a 50-mcg/kg bolus and a 25-microg/kg bolus with a final infusion rate of 0.75 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1). Blood samples for milrinone concentration were drawn 30 min after each bolus, at steady state, and after discontinuing the milrinone infusion. Pharmacokinetics were evaluated using traditional and nonlinear mixed effects modeling analysis. Milrinone kinetics best fit a two-compartment model. Steady-state plasma levels in the small and large dose groups were within the adult therapeutic range (113 +/- 39 and 206 +/- 74 ng/mL, respectively). The volumes of distribution (Vbeta) in infants (0.9 L/kg) and children (0.7 L/kg) were not different, but infants had significantly lower milrinone clearance (3.8 vs 5.9 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Thrombocytopenia (defined as platelet count < or = 100,000 mm(-3)) occurred in 58%, and the risk increased significantly with duration of infusion. Tachyarrythmias were noted in two patients. Milrinone did not bind to CPB circuitry. The authors conclude that milrinone is cleared more rapidly in children than in adults. The major complication was thrombocytopenia.